Luis Federico Leloir was an Argentine physician and biochemist who received the 1970 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Born in France to Argentinean parents. His family returned to Argentina when Leloir was young, and he received most of his medical education at the University of Buenos Aires and and began his residency at Hospital de Clínicas and his medical internship at Ramos Mejía hospital.
He studied with multiple Nobel Prize winners, including Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins and Bernardo A. Houssay. Leloir was forced to flee to the United States in 1943 due to his association with Houssay, who vocally opposed Nazi regime and the fascist ruler of Argentina. During this time, he held the position of associate professor in the Department of Pharmacology at Washington University in St. Louis. He returned to Argentina following the war, and resumed his research working with Houssay and served as director of private research group Fundación Instituto Campomar.
In 1970 Leloir received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, for his discovery of the metabolic pathways in lactose.
Luis Federico Leloir was born in one of Paris' most upscale neighborhoods (81, Avenue Victor Hugo, a few blocks away from the Arc de Triomphe) on September 6, 1906. According to his own account, his ancestors immigrated to Argentina during the colonial period, coming mostly from southwestern France (Oloron-Sainte Marie, in the Béarn region) and northeastern Spain (Basque Country).