The research papers and commentaries presented herein discuss the supply-side shock of synthetic opioids that presents multiple overlapping challenges and paradoxes for epidemiological and toxicological surveillance, supply-side intervention, cryptomarkets and public health intervention.
Stewart, Katharine1. “The Fourth Amendment, Dark Web Drug Dealers, and the Opioid Crisis.” Florida Law Review, vol. 70, no. 5, Sept. 2018, pp. 1097–1126. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lgs&AN=134257132&site=ehost-live&scope=site.
Cicero, Theodore J., Matthew S. Ellis, and Zachary A. Kasper. "Increases in Self-Reported Fentanyl use among a Population Entering Drug Treatment: The Need for Systematic Surveillance of Illicitly Manufactured Opioids." Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 177, 2017, pp. 101-103.
The purpose of this Policy Watch column is to provide a brief overview of the global problems associated with the illicit production and trafficking of synthetic opioids as well as international efforts and policy approaches designed to curb them.
Fornili, Katherine S. "International Control Efforts to Curb the Global Production and Trafficking of Fentanyl and Other Synthetic Opioids." Journal of Addictions Nursing, vol. 30, no. 1, 2019, pp. 71-76.
Dorm Room Dealers: Drugs and the Privileges of Race and Class by A. Rafik Mohamed; Erik FritsvoldWhy do affluent, upwardly mobile college students - who have everything to lose and little to gain - choose to sell drugs? Why do law enforcement officers largely overlook drug dealing on college campuses? With rich, lively details, A. Rafik Mohamed and Erik Fritsvold deliver unprecedented insight into the world of college drug dealers - and offer an important corrective to the traditional distorted view of the US drug trade as primarily involving poor minorities. Drawing on three years of fieldwork at a predominately white private university, their exceptional ethnography skillfully explores issues of deviance, race, and stratification in the US war on drugs.
Call Number: HV5824.Y68 M63 2010
Publication Date: 2009
Smack: Heroin and the American City by Eric C. SchneiderWhy do the vast majority of heroin users live in cities? In his provocative history of heroin in the United States, Eric C. Schneider explains what is distinctively urban about this undisputed king of underworld drugs. During the twentieth century, New York City was the nation's heroin capital--over half of all known addicts lived there, and underworld bosses like Vito Genovese, Nicky Barnes, and Frank Lucas used their international networks to import and distribute the drug to cities throughout the country, generating vast sums of capital in return. Schneider uncovers how New York, as the principal distribution hub, organized the global trade in heroin and sustained the subcultures that supported its use. Through interviews with former junkies and clinic workers and in-depth archival research, Schneider also chronicles the dramatically shifting demographic profile of heroin users. Originally popular among working-class whites in the 1920s, heroin became associated with jazz musicians and Beat writers in the 1940s. Musician Red Rodney called heroin the trademark of the bebop generation. "It was the thing that gave us membership in a unique club," he proclaimed. Smack takes readers through the typical haunts of heroin users--52nd Street jazz clubs, Times Square cafeterias, Chicago's South Side street corners--to explain how young people were initiated into the drug culture. Smack recounts the explosion of heroin use among middle-class young people in the 1960s and 1970s. It became the drug of choice among a wide swath of youth, from hippies in Haight-Ashbury and soldiers in Vietnam to punks on the Lower East Side. Panics over the drug led to the passage of increasingly severe legislation that entrapped heroin users in the criminal justice system without addressing the issues that led to its use in the first place. The book ends with a meditation on the evolution of the war on drugs and addresses why efforts to solve the drug problem must go beyond eliminating supply.
Call Number: HV5822.H4 S36 2008
Publication Date: 2008
The Border Challenge: An Insider's Guide to Stopping Drugs at America's Borders by T. Michael AndrewsThis book presents an insider's view of the federal government's dual mission to stop the flow of illegal drugs across our borders and to prevent streams of drug money from financing drug cartels, insurgents, and terrorists. Andrews focuses on current challenges facing federal drug enforcement agencies, how our strategies for enforcement have been redirected since 9/11, and why we require different strategies along our northern and southern borders and our ports of entry. This guide's aim is to provide an operational view of drug enforcement to policymakers, law enforcement officials, think tanks examining drug interdiction issues, and military officials who assist federal law enforcement efforts. The Border Challenge will also be of interest to students of international development and social change and the next generation of criminal justice and law enforcement officials.
Publication Date: 2011
Cooperation and Drug Policies in the Americas : Trends in the Twenty-First Century by Roberto Zepeda (Editor)This volume examines drug policies and the role of cooperation in the Americas. Many current and former politicians have discussed the failures of the war on drugs and the need for alternative approaches. Uruguay as well as Colorado and Washington have legalized marijuana. The Organization of American states produced a report in 2013 which discussed alternative policy options to the drug war. This work examines the nature of cooperation and drug policies in the twenty-first century in the Americas, highlighting the major challenges and obstacles. The argument is that one country cannot solve drug trafficking as it is a transnational problem. Therefore, the producing, consuming, and transit countries must work together and cooperate.
Publication Date: 2014
The World Heroin Market : Can Supply Be Cut? by Letizia Paoli; Peter Reuter; Victoria A. GreenfieldDuring 2000-1 in Afghanistan, the Taliban achieved a longtime goal of national and international drug policy agencies: a large, sudden, and unanticipated reduction in world opium production. This cutback provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the dynamics of the world opiate market andask whether further interventions could effectively reduce the flows of drugs. Based on an extended, multi-national study, the authors construct a new model for the trafficking of drugs and revenues and offer the first account of the world market in heroin and other illicit opiates during and afterthe 2001 ban. The authors' broader findings demonstrate how robust production, trafficking, and consumption combine to make successful long-term interventions on the supply-side rare exceedingly difficult, though specific policies can impact the organization and behavior of markets. For reductionsin both production and consumption, where the cultivation of opium is entrenched in the normal life and legitimate economy of millions of people, international agencies and foreign governments must provide adequate and long-term support to foster both alternative development policies and lawenforcement programs.
Publication Date: 2009
The Handbook of Drugs and Society by Henry H. Brownstein (Editor)This handbook provides a comprehensive examination of the past and present roles of drugs in society with a focus on theory, research, policy, and practice. Includes 28 original chapters with multi-disciplinary and international perspectives by top social and behavioral scientists Reviews current knowledge in the field, including key research findings, theoretical developments, and methodological debates Identifies ongoing controversies in the field, emergent topics, and areas in need of further inquiry Discusses individual drugs as well as topics like physiological theories of drug use and abuse, public health implications of drugs, patterns of drugs and crime, international drug trade and trafficking, and designer drugs
Publication Date: 2015
Illicit Drug Policies, Trafficking, and Use the World Over by Heather Ahn-Redding; Rita J. Simon; Caterina Gouvis RomanHave the nations of the world begun to converge with respect to drug policy? Which countries have remained apart from the international dialogue? Which have taken steps to forge new, more liberal policies stressing education, treatment, and alternative community-based intervention? Focusing specifically on cannabis, cocaine, and heroin, Illicit Drug Policies, Trafficking, and Use the World Over presents a brief history and analysis of the current laws and policies regarding illicit drugs--widely considered to be a growing international health threat--in twenty five different countries. With its wide breadth of data and analysis, this volume will be valuable for both scholars and students of this seemingly intractable social, legal, and political problem.
A collection of several articles from the July 2018 Volume 66 Number 4 issue of the U.S. Attorney's Bulletin addressing fentanyl, border security, community outreach, fentanyl trafficking trends, and more.
North America's first and only legal, supervised injection site is located in Vancouver and has been one of Canada's most controversial biomedical interventions. Emerging from a progressive harm reduction model, and adopted in many cities around the globe from Sydney to Paris, safe injection facilities are considered by many to be the hallmark of innovative programming for the urban poor.
This article "present[s] insight into the escalating trends in overdose...the responses...and the challenges related to harm reduction...both as a policy approach and a set of interventions to reduce the harms related to the opioid crisis."
Opioid-involved overdoses in the United States have dramatically increased in the last 15 years, largely due to a rise in prescription opioid (PO) use. Yet few studies have examined the overdose knowledge and experience of nonmedical PO users.
Frank, David, et al. "High Risk and Little Knowledge: Overdose Experiences and Knowledge among Young Adult Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Users." International Journal of Drug Policy, vol. 26, no. 1, 2014;2015;, pp. 84-91. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955395914002060
Nadelmann, Ethan, and Lindsay LaSalle. "Two Steps Forward, One Step Back: Current Harm Reduction Policy and Politics in the United States." Harm Reduction Journal, vol. 14, 2017. ProQuest, https://sc4.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1915671245?accountid=41091, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-017-0157-y.
Peterson, Meghan, et al. "“One Guy Goes to Jail, Two People are Ready to Take His Spot”: Perspectives on Drug-Induced Homicide Laws among Incarcerated Individuals." International Journal of Drug Policy, vol. 70, 2019, pp. 47-53. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955395919301173
Prescribed Medications and the Public Health: Laying the Foundation for Risk Reduction by William N. KellyAn alarming look at America's other drug problem--medication safety! Drug misadventures are an all-too-frequent and deadly cause of adverse medical events. Prescribed Medications and the Public Health: Laying the Foundation for Risk Reduction explores ways to combat the widespread problem of adverse drug events (ADEs). This comprehensive book shows how our broken health care and medication use system often inflicts harm--most of it preventable--on patients. Strategies are presented to help health care managers, health professionals, regulators, and policymakers to dynamically improve the entire system. With the growing use of prescribed medications comes a rising number of adverse drug reactions, drug interactions, allergic reactions, and medication errors. Prescribed Medications and the Public Health discusses problems such as drug supply issues, drug defects, counterfeit drugs, limitations for oversight of Internet prescriptions, inaccurate splitting of pills, and poor administration of drugs. The book examines the issues from all angles, including patient considerations, drug factors, and unsafe practices that contribute to ADEs. Liability costs for drug injury are reviewed, along with effective practical strategies for preventing, reducing, detecting, and documenting adverse drug events. National and local plans are explored to help achieve the essential goal of greater safety throughout the system. The text is extensively referenced and includes approximately 50 figures and tables to clearly present information. Prescribed Medications and the Public Health reviews in detail how to battle these problems in both inpatient and ambulatory care: adverse drug reactions dangerous allergic reactions harmful drug interactions medication errors adverse vaccine reactions drug misadventures Prescribed Medications and the Public Health is crucial reading for medication safety officers; pharmacoepidemiologists; medication safety experts; educators and students in schools of pharmacy and public health, medicine, nursing, and hospital/health services management; health care managers; regulators; policymakers; and advocates for improving drug safety.
Call Number: RM146.5 K45 2006
Publication Date: 2006
War on Drugs IV : The Continuing Saga of the Mysteries and Miseries of Intoxication, Addiction, Crime, and Public Policy by James A. InciardiWritten by a leading researcher and textbook author in the field of alcohol and drug studies, this text presents a series of perspectives and reflections on the worlds of drug-taking, drug-seeking, and public policy.. This highly readable book takes a candid look at the world of drug and alcohol use, abuse, and control. The text presents many sides of major issues, the history and patterns of abuse, and coverage of the major drugs (e.g. heroin, cocaine, crack, prescription drugs, marijuana, amphetamines, hallucinogens, and club drugs). This excellent resource can be a main text or supplement, and serves as a basis for discussion and debate of some of the major issues related to the drug problem (e.g. legalization, medical marijuana, needle exchange, harm reduction, supply reduction strategies versus demand reduction strategies).
Call Number: HV5825 .I5432 2008
Publication Date: 2007
Drug Abuse Sourcebook by Laura Larsen (Editor)Provides basic consumer health information about the abuse of illegal drugs and misuse of prescription and over-the-counter medications, along with facts about prevention, treatment, and recovery. Includes index, glossary of related terms and directory of resources.
Publication Date: 2014
Harm Reduction: National and International Perspectives by James A. Inciardi (Editor); Lana D. Harrison (Editor)In this volume, international contributors discuss the philosophical basis and history of harm reduction policies and examine their outcomes. They also cover controversial topics related to harm reduction especially conflicts between the public health system, where most programmes are located, and a worldwide criminal justice system that further marginalizes drug users. The book describes programmes from the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Brazil, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Australia.
Publication Date: 2000
The Life of the Heroin User : Typical Beginnings, Trajectories and Outcomes by Shane DarkeHeroin is a worldwide scourge and a seemingly intractable one. The Life of the Heroin User: Typical Beginnings, Trajectories and Outcomes is the first book to apply a biographical approach to the lifecycle of the heroin user from birth until death. Chapters address each stage of the user's life, including childhood, routes to use, the development of dependence, problems arising from addiction, death and options for treatment and prevention. Drawing on over two decades of experience in the field of opiate research, Shane Darke examines major theoretical approaches to the development of opiate dependence and the efficacy of treatment options for opiate dependence. Key points are presented at the end of each chapter. The most detailed review available of what is likely to happen to the dependent heroin user, this is an important book for clinicians, researchers and students in the fields of drug and alcohol studies and public health.
Publication Date: 2011
Orientation on Harm Reduction: Three-hour Training Course, Participant Manual by World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific StaffThis training package has been produced for audiences unfamiliar with harm reduction for injecting drug users. It provides an introduction to important concepts in HIV prevention for injecting drug users. The package contains five training modules with slides that can be delivered separately or in one session. The modules cover the following topics: introduction to drugs, HIV and harm reduction; Outreach to injecting drug users; Drug-dependency treatment; Needle and syringe programmes and HIV prevention in prisons and closed settings. The delivery of this training package should include opportunities for discussion and reflection of the information provided. Activities to facilitate this process have been included. There are two versions of this training manual. Participant Manual - Version Atakes approximately three hours to deliver while Participant Manual - Version Btakes around one hour.
The purpose of the Michigan State Opioid Response(SOR)project is to increase access toMedication-Assisted Treatment(MAT) for the three FDA-approved medications; reduce unmet treatment need; and reduce opioid overdose-related deaths through the provision of prevention, treatment and recovery activities for Opioid Use Disorders(OUD). Michigan.gov.
Best evidence from cohort and modeling studies suggests that supervised injection sites (SISs) are associated with lower overdose mortality (88 fewer overdose deaths per 100 000 person-years [PYs]), 67% fewer ambulance calls for treating overdoses, and a decrease in HIV infections. Effects on hospitalizations are unknown.
Ng, Jennifer et al. “Does evidence support supervised injection sites?.” Canadian family physician Medecin de famille canadien vol. 63,11 (2017): 866. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5685449/
McCann, Eugene, and Cristina Temenos. "Mobilizing Drug Consumption Rooms: Inter-Place Networks and Harm Reduction Drug Policy." Health and Place, vol. 31, 2015, pp. 216-223. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1353829214001889
Approximately 100 supervised injection facilities (SIFs) operate in 66 cities around the world to reduce overdose deaths, the spread of disease and public disorder, though none legally exist in the United States. Public bathrooms are among the most common public places for injection reported by people who inject drugs in New York City (NYC) and service industry employees (SIEs) inadvertently become first-responders when overdoses occur in business bathrooms. The goal of this study was to assess SIE acceptability of SIFs and the perceived effects that SIFs would have on them, their colleagues, their businesses and communities.
Wolfson-Stofko, Brett, et al. "Perspectives on Supervised Injection Facilities among Service Industry Employees in New York City: A Qualitative Exploration." International Journal of Drug Policy, vol. 62, 2018, pp. 67-73. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955395918302500
Drug Legalization by Scott BarbourThis is a utilitarian gathering of previously published articles and talks in which several aspects of drug legalization are examined from opposing viewpoints. The first chapter deals with the efficacy of outright prohibition, with several present and former government officials weighing in on the "pro" side, and the likes of Jesse Jackson and Peter McWilliams offering countering arguments. The question of liberalizing drug laws is considered in the second chapter, and in the third, the specific case of marijuana.
Call Number: HV5825 .D77665 2000
Publication Date: 2000
Fighting for Space: How a Group of Drug Users Transformed One City's Struggle with Addiction by Travis LupickWinner, George Ryga Award for Social Awareness in Literature Finalist, Roderick Haig-Brown Regional Prize (BC Book Prizes) Finalist, Vancouver Book Award North America is in the grips of a drug epidemic. While deaths across the continent soar, Travis Lupick's Fighting for Space explains the concept of harm reduction as a crucial component of a city's response to the drug crisis. It tells the story of a grassroots group of addicts in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside who waged a political street fight for two decades to transform how the city treats its most marginalized citizens. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, this group of residents from Canada's poorest neighbourhood organized themselves in response to a growing number of overdose deaths and demanded that addicts be given the same rights as any other citizen; against all odds, they eventually won. But just as their battle came to an end, fentanyl arrived and opioid deaths across North America reached an all-time high. It's prompted many to rethink the war on drugs. Public opinion has slowly begun to turn against prohibition, and policy-makers are finally beginning to look at addiction as a health issue as opposed to one for the criminal justice system. The previous epidemic in Vancouver sparked government action. Twenty years later, as the same pattern plays out in other cities, there is much that advocates for reform can learn from Vancouver's experience. Fighting for Space tells that story, with the same passionate fervor as the activists whose tireless work gave dignity to addicts and saved countless lives.
Call Number: HV5840.C32 V36 2017
Publication Date: 2018
Bridging the Gap Between Practice and Research: Forging Partnerships with Community-Based Drug and Alcohol Treatment by Sara Lamb (Editor); Merwyn R. Greenlick (Editor); Dennis McCarty (Editor); Institute of Medicine Staff; Community-Based Drug Treatment StaffToday, most substance abuse treatment is administered by community-based organizations. If providers could readily incorporate the most recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of addiction and treatment, the treatment would be much more effective and efficient. The gap between research findings and everyday treatment practice represents an enormous missed opportunity at this exciting time in this field. Informed by real-life experiences in addiction treatment including workshops and site visits, Bridging the Gap Between Practice and Research examines why research remains remote from treatment and makes specific recommendations to community providers, federal and state agencies, and other decisionmakers. The book outlines concrete strategies for building and disseminating knowledge about addiction; for linking research, policy development, and everyday treatment implementation; and for helping drug treatment consumers become more informed advocates. In candid language, the committee discusses the policy barriers and the human attitudes--the stigma, suspicion, and skepticism--that often hinder progress in addiction treatment. The book identifies the obstacles to effective collaboration among the research, treatment, and policy sectors; evaluates models to address these barriers; and looks in detail at the issue from the perspective of the community-based provider and the researcher.
Publication Date: 1998
Implementing Evidence-Based Practices in Community Corrections and Addiction Treatment by Faye S. Taxman; Steven BelenkoCommunity corrections programs are emerging as an effective alternative to incarceration for drug-involved offenders, to reduce recidivism and improve public health and public safety. nbsp;Since evidence-based practice is gaining recognition as a success factor in both community systems and substance abuse treatment, a merger of the two seems logical and desirable. But integrating evidence-based addiction treatment into community corrections is no small feat--costs, personnel decisions, and effective, appropriate interventions are all critical considerations. nbsp; Featuring the first model of implementation strategies linking these fields, Implementing Evidence-Based Practices in Community Corrections and Addiction Treatment sets out criteria for identifying practices and programs as evidence. The book's detailed blueprint is based on extensive research into organizational factors (e.g., management buy-in) and external forces (e.g., funding, resources) with the most impact on the adoption of evidence-based practices, and implementation issues ranging from skill building to quality control. With this knowledge, organizations can set realistic, attainable goals and achieve treatment outcomes that reflect the evidence base. nbsp; Included in the coverage: Determining evidence for "what works." Organization change and technology transfer: theory and literature review. The current state of addiction treatment and community corrections. Unique challenges of evidence-based addiction treatment under community supervision. Assessing suitability of evidence-based practice in real-world settings. A conceptual model for implementing evidence-based treatment in community corrections. nbsp; Implementing Evidence-Based Practices in Community Corrections andnbsp;Addiction Treatmentnbsp;is a breakthrough volume for graduate- and postgraduate-level researchers in criminology, as well as policymakers and public health researchers.
Publication Date: 2011
The Recovery Revolution: The Battle Over Addiction Treatment in the United States by Claire D. ClarkIn the 1960s, as illegal drug use grew from a fringe issue to a pervasive public concern, a new industry arose to treat the addiction epidemic. Over the next five decades, the industry's leaders promised to rehabilitate the casualties of the drug culture even as incarceration rates for drug-related offenses climbed. In this history of addiction treatment, Claire D. Clark traces the political shift from the radical communitarianism of the 1960s to the conservatism of the Reagan era, uncovering the forgotten origins of today's recovery movement. Based on extensive interviews with drug-rehabilitation professionals and archival research, The Recovery Revolution locates the history of treatment activists' influence on the development of American drug policy. Synanon, a controversial drug-treatment program launched in California in 1958, emphasized a community-based approach to rehabilitation. Its associates helped develop the therapeutic community (TC) model, which encouraged peer confrontation as a path to recovery. As TC treatment pioneers made mutual aid profitable, the model attracted powerful supporters and spread rapidly throughout the country. The TC approach was supported as part of the Nixon administration's "law-and-order" policies, favored in the Reagan administration's antidrug campaigns, and remained relevant amid the turbulent drug policies of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. While many contemporary critics characterize American drug policy as simply the expression of moralizing conservatism or a mask for racial oppression, Clark recounts the complicated legacy of the "ex-addict" activists who turned drug treatment into both a product and a political symbol that promoted the impossible dream of a drug-free America.
Publication Date: 2017
Strength, Support, Setbacks and Solutions : The Developmental Pathway To Addiction Recovery by David BestStrength, Support, Setbacks and Solutions is a follow-up to Addiction Recovery: A movement for social change and personal growth in the UK (2012). It tests a number of the hypotheses and models of recovery outlined in the earlier publication by presenting and examining a range of accounts from those in recovery from alcohol or illicit drug addiction. The handbook re-familiarises the reader with the concept of recovery and its origins, recovery capital, contagion and recovery champions, before examining stories told by people in recovery about how they managed to achieve it and what it did for their lives. It examines the unique experiences of addiction professionals who are in recovery and who face the decision of disclosing their recovery status at both a personal and professional level. Focusing on a developmental pathway model, this handbook expands the notion that recovery is a gradual journey of growth and identity change mediated by social supports. It also acknowledges the significant role that mutual aid, social networks and recovery champions play in a person’s recovery journey. This book is for those who have made the choice and transition into recovery, or for those working with and supporting people who have made the choice to aspire to recovery.
"Research compiled by UNODC suggests that the goals of community based treatment are to: Encourage behaviour change directly in the community [and to] Actively involve local organizations and community members and target populations, in the establishment of an integrated network of community based services in a manner that is empowering."
Despite the contribution of drug offender incarceration to prison growth nationally, and debates about whether this approach should be curtailed, only limited rigorous research exists that evaluates the effect of imprisonment on drug offender recidivism. To address this gap, this paper uses sentencing and recidivism data from a cohort of individuals convicted of felony drug offenses in Florida to examine the effect of imprisonment--as compared to community sanctions--on recidivism.
Mitchell, Ojmarrh, et al. "The Effectiveness of Prison for Reducing Drug Offender Recidivism: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis." Journal of Experimental Criminology, vol. 13, no. 1, 2017, pp. 1-27. ProQuest, https://sc4.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1873623492?accountid=41091, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11292-017-9282-6.
Over the years, researchers have found drug courts reduce recidivism for participants. Scholars have hypothesized that drug courts are effective at producing positive outcomes for participants due in part to a case management approach that implements concepts of procedural justice.
Atkin-Plunk, Cassandra A. email@example.com., and Gaylene S. .. Armstrong. “An Examination of the Impact of Drug Court Clients’ Perceptions of Procedural Justice on Graduation Rates and Recidivism.” Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, vol. 55, no. 8, Nov. 2016, pp. 525–547. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/10509674.2016.1229712.
Overdose is the leading cause of premature mortality among heroin users. We examine whether the provision of regulated and quality‐controlled heroin to users in specified doses would reduce heroin overdose rates.
Darke, Shane, and Michael Farrell. "Would Legalizing Illicit Opioids Reduce Overdose Fatalities? Implications from a Natural Experiment." Addiction, vol. 109, no. 8, 2014, pp. 1237-1242. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/add.12456
Alternatives to Prisons by Jennifer Skancke (Editor)In the past thirty years America's prison population has skyrocketed to over 2.1 million prisoners with no evidence of slowing down. The contributors to this anthology explore the reasons behind the exploding prison population, whether prisons are a successful deterrent to crime, and the various alternatives to imprisonment - drug courts, mental health courts, electronic monitoring, family-based therapies, and restorative justice - that are currently available.
Call Number: HV9304 .A647 2005
Publication Date: 2005
Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice by Charles F. LevinthalThis adaptation of the author's Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society is oriented toward a psychological/sociological perspective, with significant attention paid to issues related to criminal justice. It focuses on the sociological aspects of drug-taking behavior and the relationship between drugs and crime. Concept checks, summaries, and key terms
Call Number: HV5801 .L493 2006
Publication Date: 2005
Federal Narcotics Law and the War on Drugs: Money Down a Rat Hole by Thomas C. Rowe; Bruce CarruthWe're losing the "war on drugs"--but the fight isn't over yet Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs examines our current anti-drug programs and policies, explains why they have failed, and presents a plan to fix them. Author Thomas C. Rowe, who has been educating college students on recreational drug use for nearly 30 years, exposes the truth about anti-drug programs he believes were conceived in ignorance of the drugs themselves and motivated by racial/cultural bias. This powerful book advocates a shift in federal spending to move funds away from the failed elements of the "war on drugs" toward policies with a more realistic chance to succeed--the drug courts, education, and effective treatment. Common myths and misconceptions about drugs have produced anti-drug programs that don't work, won't work, and waste millions of dollars. Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs looks at how--and why--this has happened and what can be done to correct it. The book is divided into "How did we get into this mess?" which details the history of anti-narcotic legislation, how drug agencies evolved, and the role played by Harry Anslinger, Commissioner of the United States Bureau of Narcotics from 1930 to 1962; "What works and what doesn't work," which looks at the failure of interdiction efforts and the negative consequences that have resulted with a particular focus on the problems of prisons balanced against the drug court system; and a third section that serves as an overview of various recreational drugs, considers arguments for and against drug legalization, and offers suggestions for more effective methods than our current system allows. Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs also examines: the creation of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics current regulations and structures current federal sentencing guidelines current state of the courts and the prison system mandatory sentencing and what judges think interdiction for heroin, cocaine and crack cocaine, and marijuana early education efforts the DARE program drug use trends drug treatment models the debate over legalization Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs also includes several appendices of federal budget figures, cocaine and heroin purity and price, and federal bureau of prisons statistics. This unique book is required reading for anyone concerned about the drug problem in the United States and what is--and isn't--being done to correct it.
Call Number: KF3890 .R69 2006
Publication Date: 2006
Judging Addicts: Drug Courts and Coercion in the Justice System by Rebecca TigerThe number of people incarcerated in the U.S. now exceeds 2.3 million, due in part to the increasing criminalization of drug use: over 25% of people incarcerated in jails and prisons are there for drug offenses. Judging Addicts examines this increased criminalization of drugs and the medicalization of addiction in the U.S. by focusing on drug courts, where defendants are sent to drug treatment instead of prison. Rebecca Tiger explores how advocates of these courts make their case for what they call "enlightened coercion," detailing how they use medical theories of addiction to justify increased criminal justice oversight of defendants who, through this process, are defined as both "sick" and "bad." Tiger shows how these courts fuse punitive and therapeutic approaches to drug use in the name of a "progressive" and "enlightened" approach to addiction. She critiques the medicalization of drug users, showing how the disease designation can complement, rather than contradict, punitive approaches, demonstrating that these courts are neither unprecedented nor unique, and that they contain great potential to expand punitive control over drug users. Tiger argues that the medicalization of addiction has done little to stem the punishment of drug users because of a key conceptual overlap in the medical and punitive approaches--that habitual drug use is a problem that needs to be fixed through sobriety. Judging Addicts presses policymakers to implement humane responses to persistent substance use that remove its control entirely from the criminal justice system and ultimately explores the nature of crime and punishment in the U.S. today.
Publication Date: 2012
Narcotics Decriminalization: Adopted Practices in Select Countries by Denise TorresThis book, prepared by the foreign law specialists and analysts of the Law Library of Congress, provides a review of laws adopted in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, and Uruguay with regard to legalisation, decriminalisation, or other forms of regulation of narcotics and other psychoactive substances. Individual country surveys included in this study demonstrate varied approaches to the problem of prosecuting drug use, possession, manufacturing, purchase, and sale. Furthermore, the book discusses medical and retail-selected legal issues of marijuana.
Publication Date: 2016
Drugs and Justice: Seeking a Consistent, Coherent, Comprehensive View by Margaret P. Battin; Troy L. Booher; Paul M. Gahlinger; Arthur G. Lipman; Jeanette C. Roberts; Douglas E. RollinsThis compact and innovative book tackles one of the central issues in drug policy: the lack of a coherent conceptual structure for thinking about drugs. Drugs generally fall into one of seven categories: prescription, over the counter, alternative medicine, common-use drugs like alcohol,tobacco and caffeine; religious-use, sports enhancement; and of course illegal street drugs like cocaine and marijuana. Our thinking and policies varies wildly from one to the other, with inconsistencies that derive more from cultural and social values than from medical or scientific facts.Penalties exist for steroid use, while herbal remedies or cold medication are legal. Native Americans may legally use peyote, but others may not. Penalties may vary for using different forms of the same drug, such as crack vs. powder cocaine. Herbal remedies are unregulated by the FDA; butmedical marijuana is illegal in most states.Battin and her contributors lay a foundation for a wiser drug policy by promoting consistency and coherency in the discussion of drug issues and by encouraging a unique dialogue across disciplines. The contributors are an interdisciplinary group of scholars mostly based at the University of Utah,and include a pharmacologist, a psychiatrist, a toxicologist, a trial court judge, a law professor, an attorney, a diatary specialist, a physician, a health expert on substance abuse, and Battin herself who is a philosopher. They consider questions like the historical development of current policyand the rationales for it; scientific views on how drugs actually cause harm; how to define the key notions of harm and addiction; and ways in which drug policy can be made more consistent. They conclude with an examination of the implications of a consistent policy for various disciplines andsociety generally.The book is written accessibly with little need for expert knowledge, and will appeal to a diverse audience of philosophers, bioethicists, clinicians, policy makers, law enforcement, legal scholars and practitioners, social workers, and general readers, as well as to students in areas likepharmacy, medicine, law, nursing, sociology, social work, psychology, and bioethics.
Publication Date: 2007
Encyclopedia of Drug Policy by James E. Hawdon (Editor); Mark A. R. Kleiman (Editor)Spanning two volumes of approximately 450 entries in an A-to-Z format, this encyclopedia explores the controversial drug war through the lens of varied disciplines. A full spectrum of articles explains topics from Colombian cartels and Mexican kingpins to television reportage; from "just say no" advertising to heroin production; and from narco-terrorism to more than $500 billion in U.S. government expenditures.Key Themes- Cases- Conferences and Conventions- Countries (Affecting U.S. Drug Policy)- Drug Trade and Trafficking- Laws and Policies- Organizations and Agencies- People-Presidential Administrations- Treatment and Addiction- Types of Drugs