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St. Clair County Community College Library

Chicago Style Citations

This library research guide provides an introduction to library resources related to Chicago Style Citations.

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St. Clair County Community College Library
323 Erie St., P.O. Box 5015
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Notes and Bibliography or Author-Date?


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The notes and bibliography system is preferred by many working in the humanities—including literature, history, and the arts.


In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography.

The notes and bibliography system can accommodate a wide variety of sources, including unusual ones that don’t fit neatly into the author-date system.



The author-date system is more common in the sciences and social sciences.


In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and year of publication. Each in-text citation matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Aside from the use of numbered notes versus parenthetical references in the text, the two systems share a similar style.




Text: Chicago Manual of Style Online, University of Chicago, 2017,