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MLA 8th Edition: Elements

A reference to formatting and citing, MLA 8th Edition.

MLA 8th Edition Elements

Click to expand element explanation.

Source

Who is responsible for the creation of this work? May be a single author or editor or there may be no single individual responsible. If no author is present, move on to next element.

What is the title of the work being cited?

Container 1

Where is this source located? Usually this element is the title of the book (if not Title of Source), magazine, journal, newspaper, or website. Italicize the title and capitalize the first letter of main words.

Include editors and translators if not given as author in this element. Use the full words before the name: edited by ___, translated by ___, etc.

Edition of the book goes in this element. Abbreviate the word edition to ed., for example, 7th ed. Version is also where you put elements such as the director’s cut for media items.

Volume and issue number usually go in this element. Use abbreviations: vol. 7, no. 12, for example. Season or episode numbers also go in this space for media.

What organization or company is responsible for producing the work in this format? Omit the publisher for magazines, journals, and newspapers, and omit the publisher for web sites whose title is the same as the publisher. If there are multiple publishers, divide them with a slash /. For university presses, use the abbreviation UP, otherwise type out the word Press when necessary.

Be as specific as the source allows for the date published or last updated. Use the Day Month Year format and abbreviate all months except May, June, and July. Use the original air date for television episodes.

For Container One, this element will usually be the page numbers. Use p. for single page and pp. for multiple pages.

Container 2

Where is this source located? In Container Two, the title may be the name of the database. Italicize the title and capitalize the first letter of main words.

Include editors and translators if not given as author in this element. Use the full words before the name: edited by ___, translated by ___, etc.

Edition of the book goes in this element. Abbreviate the word edition to ed., for example, 7th ed. Version is also where you put elements such as the director’s cut for media items.

Volume and issue number usually go in this element. Use abbreviations: vol. 7, no. 12, for example. Season or episode numbers also go in this space for media.

What organization or company is responsible for producing the work in this format? Omit the publisher for magazines, journals, and newspapers, and omit the publisher for web sites whose title is the same as the publisher. If there are multiple publishers, divide them with a slash /. For university presses, use the abbreviation UP, otherwise type out the word Press when necessary.

Be as specific as the source allows for the date published or last updated. Use the Day Month Year format and abbreviate all months except May, June, and July. Use the original air date for television episodes.

For Container Two items, use DOI for electronic sources, if given. If DOI is not given, use permanent URLs omitting the preface http://.